Articles


In Book I of On the Nature of Things[1], Lucretius provides arguments for the existence of two main things that exist: matter and the void. Further, he argues that there are no other types of things besides these. First, Lucretius asserts that matter is known to exist by means of sensory perception. We see matter, we interact with it, and thus it must exist. He argues immediately for empiricism by saying...

According to Leibniz, the actual world is the best of all possible worlds. He outlines a simple argument for this conclusion in The Monadology, §§53-55. The argument proceeds as follows: God has the idea of infinitely many universes. Only one of these universes can actually exist. God’s choices are subject to the principle of sufficient reason, that is, God has reason to choose one thing or another. God is good. Therefore, the...

In Book I, Chapter VII of his Confessions, Augustine makes some comments on the innocence of infants. I'm not a huge fan of religious philosophy, but I found this passage kind of amusing. Augustine says that the actions of infants are "reprehensible" (8), the way they cry loudly for nourishment, constantly demanding the attention of their mother. Infants become intolerant of others, their parents and strangers, who do not obey them,...